Tuesday, October 03, 2006

Omega-3 and Omega-6 Food Sources

Finding information about how much omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are in a food or oil isn't an easy undertaking. The information is not all that readily available and takes some time to find. Below is the start of a list of foods and fats/oils to start with - as I find more information, I'll update here and include the sources of the additional information. For now, I wanted to provide a list to start with from the information I have gathered. I ask my readers to add to this list in the comments section - place links and any levels of omega-3/6 tested in the comments for other readers to use!

FATS AND OILS (per 100g)

Fish Oils (average cod, halibut, mackerel, rockfish and salmon oils)
1.2g LA (n-6)
0.9g ALA (n-3)
9.9g EPA (n-3)
12.8g DHA (n-3)

Fish Liver Oil (Atlantic Cod)
1.5g LA (n-6)
0.9g ALA (n-3)
8g EPA (n-3)
14.3 DHA (n-3)

Shellfish Oil (Pacific Oyster)
1.2g LA (n-6)
1.6g ALA (n-3)
21.5g EPA (n-3)
20.2g DHA (n-3)

Nut and Seed Oils

Cashew Oil
16g LA (n-6)
0.4g ALA (n-3)

Peanut Oil
29g LA (n-6)
1.1g ALA (n-3)

Pumpkin SeedOil
51g LA (n-6)
0 ALA (n-3)

Sesame Seed Oil
42g LA (n-6)
0.5g ALA (n-3)

Sunflower Oil
53g LA (n-6)
0g ALA (n-3)

Coconut Oil
3g LA (n-6)
0g ALA (n-3)

Flaxseed Oil
15g LA (n-6)
55g ALA (n-3)

Olive Oil
9g LA (n-6)
0.7g ALA (n-3)

Avocado Oil
12.5g LA (n-6)
1g ALA (n-3)

Macadamia Nut Oil
1.5g LA (n-6)
1.5g ALA (n-3)

Vegetable Oils

Corn Oil
57g LA (n-6)
0.8g ALA (n-3)

Cottonseed Oil
48g LA (n-6)
0.4g ALA (n-3)

Canola Oil
22g LA (n-6)
11g ALA (n-3)

Soybean Oil
53g LA (n-6)
7g ALA (n-3)

Walnut Oil
62g LA (n-6)
4g ALA (n-3)

Wheat Germ Oil
54g LA (n-6)
7g ALA (n-3)

Animal Fats

Beef Tallow (grain-fed beef source)
4g LA (n-6)
0.7g ALA (n-3)

Chicken Fat
17g LA (n-6)
1.1g ALA (n-3)

Lard
10g LA (n-6)
1.4g ALA (n-3)

Mutton Fat
5g LA (n-6)
2.9g ALA (n-3)

WHOLE FOOD SOURCES (per 100g)

Dairy

Cheddar cheese, natural
0.5g LA (n-6)
0.4g ALA (n-3)

Cream cheese, regular
0.8g LA (n-6)
0.5g ALA (n-3)

Gruyere cheese, regular
1.3g LA (n-6)
0.4g ALA (n-3)

American cheese, regular
0.6g LA (n-6)
0.3g ALA (n-3)

Heavy Cream, conventional, grain-fed cows
0.9g LA (n-6)
0.6g ALA (n-3)

Light Cream, conventional, grain-fed cows
0.5g LA (n-6)
0.3g ALA (n-3)

Sour Cream, conventional
0.4g LA (n-6)
0.3g ALA (n-3)

Milk, whole, conventional
0.1g LA (n-6)
0.1g ALA (n-3)

Yogurt, plain, whole milk, conventional
0.1g LA (n-6)
0.1g ALA (n-3)

Egg Yolks, conventional (100g = approximately 4 yolks)
2.6g LA (n-6)
0.05g ALA (n-3)

Egg Yolks, pastured or flaxseed included in diet
4.2g LA (n-6)
2.1g ALA (n-3)

Butter, conventional
2.73g LA (n-6)
0.32g ALA (n-3)

Butter, grass-fed organic
1.8g LA (n-6)
1.2g ALA (n-3)

Meats & Game

Elk
0.343g (n-6)
0.056g (n-3)

Bison
0.156g (n-6)
0.026g (n-3)

Beef, grass-fed
0.139g (n-6)
0.052g (n-3)

Beef, grain-fed, conventional
0.275g (n-6)
0.016g (n-3)

UPDATE - October 5, 2006

Venison, roast, cooked, braised (approximate levels)
0.13g (n-6)
0.06g (n-3)

Sources:

Medeiro, L.C. 2002. Nutritional content of game meat. B-920R. College of Agriculture, University of WyomingUSDA Nutrient Database

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):21-9; Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health

Lipids. 2005 Feb;40(2):191-202; A study on the causes for the elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows' milk of alpine origin

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12 Suppl:S38; Feeding regimes affect fatty acid composition in Australian beef cattle

J Nutr Health Aging. 2005 Jul-Aug;9(4):232-42; Where to find omega-3 fatty acids and how feeding animals with diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids to increase nutritional value of derived products for human: what is actually useful?

Poult Sci. 2000 Jul;79(7):971-4; Enriched eggs as a source of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans

Omega-3 Oils - A Practical Guide, Donald Rudin, MD, Clara Felix

65 comments:

  1. so, check my math here...

    looking at the eternal question, is there any omega 3 benefit to eating grass fed beef (and ignoring all the other reasons, for now), I tried to convert the numbers into the 12oz portion size I typically eat.

    here we go:

    100 grams = 3.53 ounces

    12/3.53 = 3.4



    Beef, grass-fed
    0.139g (n-6) x 3.4 = .4726 g per 12oz steak
    0.052g (n-3) x 3.4 = .1768 g per 12 oz. steak

    Beef, grain-fed, conventional
    0.275g (n-6) x 3.4 = .935, per 12 oz. steak, .4624 higher than grass fed
    0.016g (n-3) x 3.4 = .0544, per 12 oz. steak, .1224 lower than grass fed

    so, a 12 oz grass fed steak has almost half a gram less n-6 than grain fed, and just slightly more than a tenth of a gram more omega 3.

    are these differences significant?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you want a ratio of somewhere like 2.2:1 O-6:0-3 so since the grass fed has MORE omega3 and less omega 6 it has a better ratio on both sides, so I would say it is significantly better.

      Delete
  2. Not on a zero carb diet it's not.

    The omega diet proponents basically have no answer to quantity, it's all about the ratio. I think it's sketchy at best to take any diet-heart studies at face value and considering I've never seen one done specifically on low-carbers, I would treat all of the studies as suspect (since many of them push the low-fat dogma).

    There simply are no "essential" carbs.

    ReplyDelete
  3. are these differences significant?

    It really depends on your total diet - everything you eat - at the end of the day.

    Some contend that the omega-3/6 doesn't matter; others take the opposite view. Depending upon your perspective, the seemingly minor differences may factor into the ratio your achieve at the end of the day...it really depends on what else you eat. The two fatty acids work differently in the metabolism and are in a synergy - so, to me, it makes sense to try to keep them within a balance between 1:1 to 1:4 (what the research thus far finds to be optimal).

    Do we know the exact ratio? Nope.

    But if we look at various foods consumed in different cultures, and then look at how the standard American diet fares, we find a large intake of omega-6, what seems to be too little omega-3, and certainly a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3...populations with a closer ratio of omega-3:6 have better health and longevity than we do in the US, and they often consume more animal foods and fats.

    Personally, I choose to eat grass-fed meats & poultry because the ratios are better than in conventional factory-farmed products.

    The added bonus is that animals that are pastured are allowed to eat as they're designed to eat and are consuming their natural diet - something I think contributes to the overall quality of the meat, quality of life for the animal and quality of my long-term health.

    ReplyDelete
  4. "The added bonus is that animals that are pastured are allowed to eat as they're designed to eat and are consuming their natural diet - something I think contributes to the overall quality of the meat, quality of life for the animal and quality of my long-term health."

    While this sounds logical and healthy, if it were true, you'd never eat another vegetable or fruit again. Every fruit and veggie in the stores, even organic ones, have been specifically designed and bred and/or genetically engineered in an attempt to change the toxic content of the veggie and/or the sugar content, as in fruit. In fact, the opposite may be the case
    Thus, no vegetable matter today resembles anything like what naturally existed before.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Ready for my two cents? Okay, have you ever ate fresh meat off the farm people? It lingers on the palate like no plastic wrapped meat shipped from 8 states away can do for you. The red blood stuff is the dyes they add to make it look pretty and yummy. Just like veggies, nothing beats it than the sun shining down and the smell of dirt when you wash them off. Pure goodness.
    As for the "American diet" I do have to say that thanks to Regina's help I have once again gotten to cut my allergy medication back and have ate full-fat foods (ooooh, some can't stand it)without gaining anything. What I gain comes off in a day or two, I believe they call it being bloated. So yes, I believe it makes a HUGE difference. Wouldn't you pay more for good meat if it meant taking less medication in the long run? It actually is a good economic investment.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You re my kind of gal/guy!!! Totally agree. As I was reading all these opinions, I was thinking, haven't any of these people ever heard of or tasted farm-raised beef or lamb. Thanks for your reality check!!! Use good sense people and get some fresh air and exercise!!!

      Delete
  6. Every fruit and veggie in the stores, even organic ones, have been specifically designed and bred and/or genetically engineered in an attempt to change the toxic content of the veggie and/or the sugar content, as in fruit.

    While there are indeed a good number of fruits and vegetables out there that have been genetically modified and/or engineered, a quick search through the US Patent & Trademark Office can tell you which they are - they certainly do not account for "every" fruit and vegetable out there, and no organic grower will touch them - GE seeds are not certified as organic!

    You might do well to get to know some of your local farmers who practice sustainable farming methods, shun chemical fertilizers and pesticides and specifically grow heirloom varieties of fruits and vegetables. While you may wish to believe humans are obligate carniovres, we're not.

    If you want to eat an all-meat diet, that is certainly your choice - it is your body, your experiment.

    I would strongly suggest you do more research to understand just what it takes to achive nutrient sufficiency in an all-meat diet - it's possible, but you do need to know what you're doing.

    Most populations that are notorious for their meat-based diets consume such a diet due to environmental factors which excludes certain types of foods from being available - they also consume nutrient-rich parts of the animals to maintain nutrient-density and health.

    ReplyDelete
  7. "While you may wish to believe humans are obligate carniovres, we're not."

    Actually, we are. The ability to digest carbs is purely a survival mechanism. It's what makes our species particularly adaptable, but when you look at the research done on isotope analysis of surving bone fragments, their diet is the same as top level carnivores like lions and hyenas.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hello,

    A reader from Sweden here. I am following a Low Carb diet for a couple of years. I love it but I am a vegetarian so I am worried I do not get enough Omega 3.

    What would you recomend for me. Flaxseed oil?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No need to get flax seed oil. Flax seeds are cheaper and you can pulverize/grind them in a blender. Flax seeds are 35% oil. Just add the ground seeds to your salads and porridge. They will thicken soup. They do not alter the taste of the parent food. Whole flax seeds keep a long time. Keep the ground seeds in the refrigerator.

      Delete
  9. Actually, we are. The ability to digest carbs is purely a survival mechanism.

    a survival system that I would suggest that we developed thru natural selection because we were eating SOME CARBS over the eons!!!

    in other words, we are onmivores.

    at any rate, I'm still not sure if I should bother buying omega 3 supplements, or if I should feel good about eating grass fed beef. I think I'll stick with the grass-fed beef because I can afford it, and there are a lot of other reasons aside from omega-3 to do so, the primary one being that I like the taste so much better than grain fed. Grain fed is more tender, yes, but tastes rather bland to me now. A secondary reason would be the ethics of treating cows the way they are treated by grain feeders, I'd rather not support that kind of thing with my dollars, if I can avoid it.

    that said, it seems kinda hard to recommend grass-fed to anyone who'se budget doesnt allow for that kind of expense, based on the omega-3 argument, anyway.

    ReplyDelete
  10. I'm curious as to whether anyone's found any omega ratio information for venison.

    I can't afford to eat grass fed beef, but I do have a source of venison (my brother has a permit to "remove" as many as necessary from his farm to protect his crops)

    The only thing is that the deer are essentially corn fed. A neighboring farm sets out corn based feed to keep them on his farm during hunting season (when he charges city dwellers a fee to hunt). During the rest of the year, the deer still have easy access to the corn growing on all the farms in the area. Thus, they eat the corn at all stages of development, from tiny green seedlings to mature stalks. They also have access to the usual foods that deer would eat in the wild - grasses, the bark of trees, various weeds, etc.

    ReplyDelete
  11. I'm curious as to whether anyone's found any omega ratio information for venison.


    I justed added the first update, with information from the USDA Nutritient Database. I've noted it is an approximate value since the fatty acid profile for venison is "undifferentiated" - I hope this helps!

    ReplyDelete
  12. What would you recomend for me. Flaxseed oil?

    Are you a vegan or a vegetarian who includes limited animal foods like cheese, eggs, dairy or fish?

    ReplyDelete
  13. when you look at the research done on isotope analysis of surving bone fragments, their diet is the same as top level carnivores like lions and hyenas.


    References please!

    ReplyDelete
  14. I would strongly suggest you do more research to understand just what it takes to achive nutrient sufficiency in an all-meat diet - it's possible, but you do need to know what you're doing.

    Most populations that are notorious for their meat-based diets consume such a diet due to environmental factors which excludes certain types of foods from being available - they also consume nutrient-rich parts of the animals to maintain nutrient-density and health.


    I find it very interesting to note that Rob has not commented on the above.

    ReplyDelete
  15. This list is a valuable resource indeed. I'll definitely print out a copy for future reference. Maybe even post a copy on the bulletin board in my office at the gym, if that's all right with you, Regina.

    And someone tell Invisible Blogger just because we can digest carbs - including refined carbs - doesn't mean we should. We can digest trans fats too, that doesn't make them healthy.

    Such lively banter in the comments to this post. An enjoyable read.

    ReplyDelete
  16. I do not eat fish but I eat cheese and diary products.

    ReplyDelete
  17. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  18. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Here's a start. Do a Google search or look at any anthropology journals yourself. Meat was the main, if only, subsistance of early man.

    A brief review of the archaeological evidence for palaeolithc and neolithic subsistence

    Bone analysis of neanderthal man also showed that they were pure carnivores as well.

    ReplyDelete
  20. I took the liberty of calculating and posting the Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratios. Some of the other
    comments already dealt with this. I have seen ideal ratios ranging from 6 : 1 to 1:1. The most
    interesting item I noticed was that of commonly consumed items dairy products had the closest to
    ideal ratio among non fish products. While there are people who are allergic to milk products,
    even some of them can consume certain dairy products like yogurt and cheese. Thanks for the
    time and space.

    Fats and Oils (per 100g)
    Fish Oils (average cod, halibut, mackerel, rockfish and salmon oils)

    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1 to 19.7

    Fish Liver Oil (Atlantic Cod)

    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1 to 15.5


    Shellfish Oil (Pacific Oyster)
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1 to 36.1


    Nut and Seed Oils

    Cashew Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    40 to 1.0

    Peanut Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    26.4 to 1

    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    > 100

    Sesame Seed Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    84.0 to 1

    Sunflower Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    >100

    Coconut Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    > 100

    Flaxseed Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    0.27 to 1

    Olive Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    12.9 to 1

    Advocado Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    12.5 to 1

    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.0 to 1

    Vegetable Oils

    Corn Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    71.3 to 1

    Cottonseed Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    120 to 1

    Canola Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    2.0 to 1

    Soybean Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    7.6 to 1

    Walnut Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    16 to 1

    Wheat Germ Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    7.7 to 1

    Animal Fats

    Beef Tallow (grain-fed beef source)
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    5.7 to 1

    Chicken Fat
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    15 to 1

    Lard
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    7.1 to 1

    Mutton Fat
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.7 to 1

    WHOLE FOOD SOURCES (per 100g)

    Dairy

    Cheddar Cheese
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.3 to 1

    Cream Cheese
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.6 to 1

    Gryuere Cheese
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    3.3 to 1

    American Cheese
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    2.0 to 1

    Heavy Cream
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.5 to 1

    Light Cream
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.7 to 1

    Sour Cream
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.3 to 1

    Milk, whole, conventional
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.0 to 1

    Yogurt, plain, whole milk, conventional
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.0 to 1

    Egg Yolks, conventional (100g = 4 yolks)
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    52.0 to 1

    Egg Yolks, pastured or flaxseed included in diet
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    2.0 to 1

    Butter, conventional
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    8.5 to 1

    Butter, grass-fed organic
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    1.5 to 1

    Meats & Game

    Elk
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    6.1 to 1

    Bison
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    6.0 to 1

    Beef, grass-fed
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    2.7 to 1

    Beef, grain-fed, conventional
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    17.2 to 1

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Mark, thank you, thank you, thank you. I was looking for exactly this, which is most helpful!

      Delete
  21. "I find it very interesting to note that Rob has not commented on the above."

    Meat is a complete food. There are absolutely no deficiencies in an all-meat diet. PERIOD. Remember, the RDA's are suggested by the same folks who tell you that eating less than 10% of your calories from saturated fat is good for you, so what the RDA's suggest is hogwash in the context of an all meat diet.

    Stefansson and Anderson survived on nothing but meat for one year under clinical supervision during the Bellevue Experiment (on top of the years Stefansson spent with the Eskimo). Anderson ate beef pretty much beef exclusively, at around 2800 calories per day. Neither of them had any health dificiencies, nor did they gain any weight (in fact they still lost weight).

    The Bear has maintained that he's survived months on end eating nothing but sirloin steak.

    Early man's diet consisted of virtually all meat.

    Beef is the best meat to eat because it's the muscle meat that closest resembles our own body.

    ReplyDelete
  22. Coconut Oil
    Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3
    > 100


    Ratios for a specific type of fat clearly do not tell the whole story.

    While Coconut Oil contains virtually no Omega-3 but does contain a small amount of Omega-6, it's "balance" appears to be way off on the ratio. But, Coconut Oil is 94% saturated fat and only a scant amount of Omega-6. As it also has a high smoke point, it is a very desireable cooking fat in addition to being very beneficial in maintaining overall Omega fatty acid balance.

    -David

    ReplyDelete
  23. Here's a start. Do a Google search or look at any anthropology journals yourself. Meat was the main, if only, subsistance of early man.

    If this is in response to my earlier post, you've still missed the point entirely.

    Since I now practice a virtually Paleolithic lifestyle myself, I'm already well aware of, and completely agree with the fact that Paleolithic man was primarily a meat eater, and yes, in certain circumstances, entirely meat eating and was able to be thoroughly nourished doing so.

    What I was pointing out was your failure to acknowledge Regina's point that Paleolithic man ate the entire animal (short of most of the skeletal structure), including bone marrow, visceral organ meats (liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, etc.) and the brain, which, in addition to being the fattiest parts of an animal, are also the parts which contain the nutrient density necessary to eating a strictly all-meat diet in a healthy way to obtain all essential nutrients.

    So, Rob, the question is, are you eating bone marrow, the visceral organ meats and brain on a regular basis?

    I note from your own blog that you do not supplement your diet in any way, so, if all you are eating is cheap, grain-fed, store bought muscle meat and some cheese, it's painfully obvious that you are setting yourself up for some serious health issues based on severe nutrient deficiencies (scurvy, rickets, etc.).

    -David

    ReplyDelete
  24. Meat is a complete food. There are absolutely no deficiencies in an all-meat diet. PERIOD.

    That's true but ONLY if you are eating the ENTIRE animal. Muscle meat alone is not a complete food.

    Remember, the RDA's are suggested by the same folks who tell you that eating less than 10% of your calories from saturated fat is good for you, so what the RDA's suggest is hogwash in the context of an all meat diet.

    Many diseases of nutrient deficiency were well established decades before Ancel Keys spouted the "diet-heart hypothesis" from which the saturated fat nonsense began.

    Stefansson and Anderson survived on nothing but meat for one year under clinical supervision during the Bellevue Experiment (on top of the years Stefansson spent with the Eskimo). Anderson ate beef pretty much beef exclusively, at around 2800 calories per day. Neither of them had any health dificiencies, nor did they gain any weight (in fact they still lost weight).

    They didn't exclusively eat cheap, store-bought grain-fed muscle meats.

    The Bear has maintained that he's survived months on end eating nothing but sirloin steak.

    "Months" LOL. Vegans "survive" years of malnutrition too. Doesn't mean he or you or the vegans aren't already severely nutrient deficient.

    -David

    ReplyDelete
  25. A brief review of the archaeological evidence for palaeolithc and neolithic subsistence

    Bone analysis of neanderthal man also showed that they were pure carnivores as well.


    Great choice of reference Rob! One I've read already and am quite familiar with.

    You may wish to re-read it and do a bit of research about some of the terminology used within to understand this paper does not prove modern humans (homo sapiens) or Neaderthals were OBLIGATE carnivores.

    Go back and carefully read your reference - Neanderthals are called "top level carnivores" - which designates place in their ecosystem and reliance on animal protein for the majority of protein intake. It does not make them an "obligate carnivores"

    Richard clearly states in his paper "...stable isotope evidence provides direct evidence of diets, and indicates, for the few limited studies, that Neaderthals were top level carnivores. Two studies of Upper Paleolithic modern humans in Europe have indicated the significant importance of animal products in the diets, and similar evidence of the consumption of animal meat is also found in the later Mesolithic periods in Europe."

    A top level carnivore means the species is a hunter within an ecosystem - going after animal prey for protein. An obligate carnivore, on the other hand, is a species that must eat the vast majority of their diet - 99+% - from animal source. An obligate carnivore is a top level carnivore....and most omnivores are top level carnivores.....the difference is that an omnivore can and does include some plant foods as part of its total diet.

    Another top level carnivore is the brown bear - they're also, like humans, omnivores and their diet, like ours is supposed to, varies by season, habitat and availability of foods with the majority of our protein needs fulfilled best with animal protein.

    As Richards stated in his paper you cited "the best interpretation of the data is the hominids, and especially modern humans, have been very successful as highly adaptable omnivores, that probably had a significant input of animal products in their diet."

    ReplyDelete
  26. Rob, furthermore, as you quoted in your own blog's entry of August 11:

    "In this experiment, it was found that boiled meat was preferred to fried.

    Broiled steaks and chops were used, - V.S. choosing lamb frequently while
    K.A. ate beef almost exclusively."

    "Both subjects received considerable quantities of bone marrow at various
    times..."


    So, Rob, are you receiving considerable quantities of bone marrow at various times?

    ReplyDelete
  27. The most
    interesting item I noticed was that of commonly consumed items dairy products had the closest to
    ideal ratio among non fish products. While there are people who are allergic to milk products,
    even some of them can consume certain dairy products like yogurt and cheese.


    It should be noted that the dairy products I listed were whole milk products - the fatty acids are only present in these quantities in the fat, therefore skim or reduced fat products will not have the same levels, if any at all!

    It is also notable, in imported cheeses - those from the Alpine regions, from milk procured from any ruminants allowed to graze the grasses in the higher elevations, the omega-3 fatty acid level is even higher.

    Lastly, in addition to some really noticable levels of omega-3 fatty acids, it should also be noted that the regular dairy also contains naturally occuring nutrients like Vitmain D and A, which are only available in skim products that are fortified.

    Tnanks for taking the time to do those ratios Mark!

    ReplyDelete
  28. the bear guy Rob is refering to is Owsley Stanely, quite an interesting character, you can google him and find some amazing stuff. Quite a rebelious iconoclast. Anyway, by his own account, he has been eating an all meat diet for 47 or so years. He is 70 something now and claims to be in excellent health. I have no reason to doubt him, even tho he does seem to be a bit obstinate and cranky, judging from his online posts (which you can find at Rob's blog, I believe).

    ReplyDelete
  29. And someone tell Invisible Blogger just because we can digest carbs - including refined carbs - doesn't mean we should. We can digest trans fats too, that doesn't make them healthy.

    carol, you just did! I am invisible, not blind!

    anyway, I never said we should eat carbs. I personally like to eat some fruit and vegetables, and I am pretty convinced that once carbs are low (50 or less? 80 or less? 30 or less? who knows?), then, for MOST people, or a lot of people at least, at some point calories become important too.

    simply eliminating all carbs and eating all you want from the animal kingdom wont do the trick.

    but hey, I could be wrong!

    ReplyDelete
  30. Rob said:Meat is a complete food. There are absolutely no deficiencies in an all-meat diet. PERIOD.

    David said: That's true but ONLY if you are eating the ENTIRE animal. Muscle meat alone is not a complete food.


    Eating just steaks isn't nutritionally sound - the steak, even with fat is trimmed to 1/2-to-1" still has no vitamin C, Calcium, A, E, K, or D; and far too little of Folate, Potassium and Calcium....setting aside vitamin D, and saying OK, that's something one can get with exposure to the sun....the other vitamins not found in the meat - well, they are found in the parts Rob isn't eating - the brain, tripe (stomach), kidneys, liver, tongue, spleen, lungs and pancreas - all parts consumed by traditional societies dependent on meeting their nutritional needs on an almost exclusive diet of animal foods.

    Which is why a diet based exclusively on animal foods is nutrient-dense - BUT - only when one consumes all the parts and not just the flesh with some of fat to the exclusion of the parts that provide the nutrients the flesh is lacking. Oh, and that's not taking into account the parts which are normally consumed raw versus cooked - since cooking often degrades nutrient content, which is why in many traditional cultures, some things are eaten raw, while other things are cooked slightly or cooked what we'd considier "normal".

    So, Rob, my advice remains - if you want to do an all-meat diet, I strongly suggest you do more research to understand what it takes to do it like traditional cultures to ensure your nutrient levels remain sufficient!

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  31. The Bear's name is Owsley STANLEY, not Stanely, in case anyone wants to Google him.

    I wonder why he didn't end up with the nickname "The Owl".

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  32. 2 suggestions for the table:

    I think the oils would be better if listed by tablespoon. I don't think many people take fish oil or corn oil in 100g servings.

    Also, it would be nice if the source of each measurement would be listed next to each food. For example, I'm guessing that the macamadia nut oil measurements came from "Omega-3 Oils - A Practical Guide," but it would be nice to know for sure.

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  33. Sorry, but an all-meat diet is complete. You either believe that or you don't.

    Somehow there's a perception that I'm anti-fish, pork and chicken. I eat all of that. Outside of lamb there isn't an animal that I don't like. Ok, I'm not really into rabbit, but you get the idea.

    I think we're losing the forest from the trees here. Animal meat was a significant segment of ancient diets. There was no veggie section back then. Most veggies and fruits were seasonal, sparse and toxic. It was only beginning in the neolithic period that agriculture began breding the toxins out of plants. Whatever vegetable matter they did eat was small and nutritionally insignificant.

    For beef I only sear the outside so that the middle is raw, and preferably still cool. I've cut the edges off of smaller pieces and eaten them raw. The meat is very sweet that way, and every cut is tender. Oh, and as far as bone marrow goes, I love making broth out of meat bones so that it's nice and gelatinous. Chop up some beef hearts and you have a nice hearty soup.

    I understand that, even in the low-carb community, the way I and other zero-carbers eat is controversial. Just as Bear stated, "ALL opponents of this simple path will attack you and your diet ferociously, and state emphatically that it is "bad" and will "kill you" and "lead to serious deficiencies" and other half-witted utterances." I accept that.

    Oh, and the Bear is "the Bear" because of his fury chest hair that he has since high school. By the way, I've actually met Bear on a couple occasions, even treating me to a free Phil Lesh & Friends show, and at that time, for a 64yo man he looked no older than 40, very toned muscle wise and had very little aging.

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  34. Rob - I'm wondering why you seem defensive here? I suggested you research more to ensure nutrient sufficiency with an all-meat diet - it can be done, it just isn't easy to do and it cannot be done if you're excluding many of the parts (organs, marrow, etc.) because the flesh and fat (what you say you're eating) has NO vitamin A, K, D or E in it and no vitamin C....are you of the belief you simply don't have a need for fat soluble vitamins and that vitamin C isn't needed either?

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  35. Raw or slightly cooked meat has the same properties as vitamin C. That fact is not even in dipute.

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  36. Sorry, but an all-meat diet is complete. You either believe that or you don't.

    I know the truth that only when the whole animal, aside from most of the skeletal structure is consumed completely that an all-animal diet is complete. You either believe that or you don't.

    I understand that, even in the low-carb community, the way I and other zero-carbers eat is controversial. Just as Bear stated, "ALL opponents of this simple path will attack you and your diet ferociously, and state emphatically that it is "bad" and will "kill you" and "lead to serious deficiencies" and other half-witted utterances." I accept that.

    And there isn't a religious doctrine in the world that doesn't contain the same warning. But nutrition (or it's deficiency) isn't about religious beliefs, it's about scientific truths.

    Raw or slightly cooked meat has the same properties as vitamin C. That fact is not even in dipute.

    Um...huh?

    -David

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  37. "Raw or slightly cooked meat has the same properties as vitamin C. That fact is not even in dipute.

    Um...huh?"

    Google is your friend. Try it.

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  38. modern_caveman1:47 AM

    I consider myself a top level carnivore. I eat meat, organs, and bones (but not brains) EVERYDAY.

    I sometimes eat vegetables, fruits, and nuts.

    This is the paleo way, with some extra emphasis on meat.

    Rob -- I hope you are eating organs and bones!!

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  39. Why Meat Prevents Scurvy

    Thank you Rob, that is very interesting. I came across it from a link on your blog after I had posted my "huh?" I am intregued by this "unknown Vitamin C-like factor of meat". Are you certain that cheap, store-bought, grain fed beef contains sufficient quantities of whatever this unknown factor is? How would you know?

    Anyway, I also note that another link you have clearly states that while Stefansson was hospitalized, he "frequently indulged in the delicacy of brains" in addition to the "considerable amounts" of marrow he was receiving.

    Are you frequently eating brains?

    You did address my question about marrow, that you are consuming some indirectly through broth, but you never answered whether or not you are eating all the various interal organs like kidneys, liver, heart, etc. and the others that Regina listed as well.

    Also of note is that while grass-fed beef contains considerable amounts of natural conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which has been linked beneficially to weightloss, grain-fed beef has practically none at all.

    -David

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  40. I thought this post of Reginas was about omega content in common fats and oils?

    Hey Regina do you have the "Know Your Fats" book? Enig has a bunch of tables in there that may help, I noticed there was a difference in Omega 6 content in coconut oils between yours and Enig, yours being 3g and the other 1.8g per 100g

    Cheers

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  41. Greetings,


    I've enjoyed reading your blog but find it odd that you could have a conversation so focused on omega-3 fatty acids that is essentially devoid of the planet's best source of them, SEAFOOD. For example, wild salmon contain essential LONG CHAIN omega-3s (EPA & DHA) needed by humans, not the ALA discussed here which must first be converted to EPA and DHA before it can be used.

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  42. Hi Regina

    I came to your blog doing a google search on the nutrional value of bone marrow. I was delighted to see a lengthy list of Omega3/6 sources etc. However, whereas bone marrow gets mentioned in the blog here and there, it is not listed. Also, beside Omegas, would you be able to supply any other nutritional information on bone marrow?

    Regards,

    Rui

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  43. Anonymous11:01 AM

    Hi,

    The Omega-3(n-3) Omega-6 (n-36) ratios are important as there appears to be a balance between these two EFA's(Essential Fatty Acids) so increasing the Omega-3 intake (which is generally low in Western diets) necessitates an increase in Omega-6. A lot of people get more than enough Omega-6 anyway but this may not apply in all cases so it may be advisable to check. This may be important for people to take into consideration who are on the Budwig Protocol. It's best to seek expert nutritional guidance in all cases. Thanks for publishing this info. The ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 is important.

    Mike

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  44. What foods do not contain omega 6? From what I heard too much omega 6 is bad for you. It causes heart malfunctions and defects to the human body.It makes you fat. Saturates are better for you. Butter is better than margarine because it does not come from an animal.Coconut oil and olive oil are a healthy choice as to vegetable oil.

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  45. Anonymous12:16 AM

    Hi! 2bthinner! from forum.lowcarber.org here. =)

    This site has venison on it.
    http://www.nutritiondata.com/foods-venison000000000000000000000.html

    You don't have to be a member. If the link doesn't work (since it's a search) just insert venison in the right top side of the page where it says enter food name and hit the green search button. If you go on down the page (you can adjust the serving size), it breaks down all the fats. At the bottom, there's a link to a page that gives the different names, though I'm sure you know them. They're all in mg though.

    =)

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  46. David:
    "I note from your own blog that you do not supplement your diet in any way, so, if all you are eating is cheap, grain-fed, store bought muscle meat and some cheese, it's painfully obvious that you are setting yourself up for some serious health issues based on severe nutrient deficiencies (scurvy, rickets, etc.)."

    Please post a study that proves we will develop scurvy on a zero-carb diet that is also low in PUFAs. It was proven by Stefansson that meat prevents scurvy and other diseases whereas refined carbs, grains, and beans probably cause deficiencies. Better yet, why not try the Bear's Diet. Nothing but 70/30, 73/27, or 75/25 ground beef, suet, macadamia oil, coconut oil, butter, cheeses, small amounts of eggs, fish, duck, goose, etc. Chicken and turkey are not desirable, because they're too high in PUFAs (21-23% of fat).

    The theory of omega-6/3 ratios is nonsense, because it is known that the total amount of PUFAs is more relevant. Saying that coconut oil has a high omega-6/3 ratio doesn't mean anything, because coconut oil has like 1-3% PUFAs at the most. I would eat coconut oil, rather than safflower oil or canola oil. It is silly to talk about ratios without considering the total PUFA amount. The best oils IMO are coconut oil, palm kernel oil, cocoa butter, mac nut oil, and red palm oil. Those have 1-7% PUFAs approximately. The next best would be olive, avocado, and hazelnut oil (8-13% PUFAs). I think it's best to keep PUFAs low, like 1-4% of total calories. I am also convinced that the omega-6/3 ratio is irrelevant. It's far more useful to keep a high ratio of SFA and MUFA to PUFA.

    Best fats: beef fat (grain-fed has better ratios than grass-fed), foie gras (fatty liver), beef suet from around the kidneys/loins, coconut, macadamia, cocoa butter, butter and ghee. Average fats: goose fat, duck fat, lamb, pork (esp the leaf fat), olive, avocado, hazelnuts. Inferior fats: chicken/turkey skin, almonds, pecans, walnuts, peanuts, cashews, brazilnuts, seeds, etc.

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  47. AnOldHouse:
    "Muscle meat alone is not a complete food."

    Please cite studies feeding animals or people nothing but fat hamburger and low-carb dairy products. If you can't do so, you have no proof that muscle meat is not a complete food. Another way to prove your case: eat nothing but fatty beef, butter, and cheese (optional). Report problems.

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  48. Invisible Blogger:
    "...I am pretty convinced that once carbs are low (50 or less? 80 or less? 30 or less? who knows?), then, for MOST people, or a lot of people at least, at some point calories become important too."

    Low-carb is not No-Carbs. If people eat low-carb, they probably replace the calories by doubling on fat and protein. Calories may count, if you eat carbs, but Bear has argued that you can't gain excess weight on the zero-carb path (<5g carbs via meat, eggs, butter, and cheese).

    "simply eliminating all carbs and eating all you want from the animal kingdom won't do the trick."

    Show me some people eating no-carb, carnivorous diets, who are carrying excess weight. I can show you loads of people eating low-carb who still have too much body fat. Maybe it is because they still eat plants, that cause deficiencies (like scurvy). A carnivore would never get scurvy if they ate fresh meat and didn't cook it too much (or at all).

    "but hey, I could be wrong!"

    I think it's great to think outside the box and read extreme views like The Bear. Only experience will tell you whether you are right or wrong. Eat no carbs, no high-PUFA oils, no dairy except butter, cheese, maybe small amounts of pure sour cream as a condiment (no additives). Then it will be clear who's right.

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    Replies
    1. Anonymous2:14 AM

      So, these "no carb-ers" never eat anything with carbs, like a chocolate bar or a meat pie or anything processed *at all* ??? Now that's pretty special, and awesome!

      Delete
  49. Anonymous6:50 PM

    Just browsing and with reference to Regina's first comment.

    This might be useful
    http://efaeducation.nih.gov/

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  50. Personally, I choose to eat grass-fed meats & poultry because the ratios are better than in conventional factory-farmed products.

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  51. I'm not going to get caught up in the debates above, but I do appreciate the info. It's rare to find the proper numbers for omega-3s and omega-6s in the first place, let alone the delineation between grass-fed products and conventional. Thank you!

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  52. "While you may wish to believe humans are obligate carniovres, we're not."

    Actually, we are. The ability to digest carbs is purely a survival mechanism. It's what makes our species particularly adaptable, but when you look at the research done on isotope analysis of surving bone fragments, their diet is the same as top level carnivores like lions and hyenas.

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  53. Thank you for the list.

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  54. Very informative post, I seriously enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author. will be waiting for your future posts Thank you for sharing.

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  55. Very interesting blog post. Thanks.

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  56. Very interesting blog post. Thanks. fil

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  57. First off... GREAT LIST!
    I would like to contribute:
    Assuming 3 to 6 ratio is important [and why else have this list?] there are 2 ingredients that are especially interesting:
    - flaxseed
    - chia seed
    ... and chia's not on the list yet.

    Chia is EVEN BETTER than flax for the practical reason that it's nice to eat :-)
    Chia seed is supposed to have 3 x more omega 3 than 6.

    Traditionally it's been consumed in South America (where it was once valued to the extent that it was literally a gift to kings) as a dring or pudding:
    drink: chia, add water, add lime juice and sugar [honey, whatever]
    pudding: chia, add (less) water, add sugar [honey, etc.]

    p.s. I have a information board myself [2012sos.nl] and no one ever wishes to contribute; i hope i've done my share without bothering anybody with irrelevant opinions (because no one has time to spare to read such things from strangers, let's face it.)
    sincerely

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  58. Thanx for ur post and giving us a hugefull information, i also read somewhere The omega-3 fatty acids found in Fish Oil possesses many health benefits.and recomended by many Health Autorities as a part of Balanced Diet. Fish Oil contains Omega-3 Fatty Acids, specifically Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA). One of the Health Benefits linked to Fish Oil is a low risk of Heart Attack. very healpfull for Blood Circulations.

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  59. Anonymous2:05 AM

    Generally speaking, omega 3 reduces inflammation in the body. Excess omega 6 enhances production of inflammatory cytokines. ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18751910 ) I choose to eat butter, coconut oil, macadamia oil & take a concentrated omega 3 supplement) I avoid consuming other vegetable oils. Following is something of interest to ponder:

    1) Logevity: Average life expectancy of Grugg (paleo man)? Average life expectancy of current day "evolved" man (with RDAs in place)?
    2) Berries: Just wondering, if Grugg was out "huntin wabbits" or other meaty creatures and stumbled upon some lovely sweet berries, might he not grab a handful and have a little snacky on these vitamin C rich bliss bombs?
    3) Organic Meat: how much man made pollution - including herbicides, pesticides, other chemicals - did Grugg's game contain? How much does the cling-wrapped meat we buy in the supermarket these days contain?
    4) Oxidative Stress: How much airborne, foodborne or waterborne chemical residue/pollution did Grugg's body have to detox?
    5) Glycation: Could the highly processed and refined grain products be the true culprits responsible for heart disease & systemic inflammation - not cholesterol?
    6) Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis: How do excess carbs get processed in the body & could they be responsible for cardiovascular disease?

    These days life is a little more complicated & filled with all sorts of challenges that Grugg never even imagined, let alone had to deal with every day, for as many years as we currently do. So while the basics of Grugg's supposedly "obligate carnivore" diet may sound good in theory, when you factor in current day concerns, it leaves a lot to be desired. On the other hand, cutting out grains and sugars, and not being so anti-saturated fats may actually be a healthy alternative to what mainstream medical 'science' has long preached as the healthy way. While I don't believe a meat only diet can be healthy for the majority of the population dealing with commonplace chemical, genetic, psychological, and environmental stressors, I do believe that a healthy balance (minus sugar, starch & grains) is in order. We can each live according to our own beliefs and let our genotypes eventually tell the true tale of who was right, and who was wrong ;-)

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